- 1 Overview of lightning phenomenon
- 2 How occurrence of lightning phenomenon
- 3 types of lightning phenomenon
- 4 predict lightning phenomenon
- 5 risk of lightning phenomenon
- 6 safety procedures when a lightning phenomenon
- 7 References
Overview of lightning phenomenon
Lightning knows (in English: lightning) as a natural phenomenon created by discharging electricity in the form of a spark when an excess of electrical charge negative or positive within a certain area of the cloud enough to break the air resistance to the passage of electric current in it, lightning is normally associated cumulus Balemsen or clouds thunderstorms, but it may also occur in the class clouds positioned in the form of large horizontal layers, and in the sand and snow storms, and in a few cases, lightning may be associated with dust and gases emitted when volcanic eruptions. 
Electrostatic discharge during lightning occurs in the form of lightning can travel at speeds 45 kilometers per second (100,000 miles per hour) and lead to a rise in temperatures of up to almost 28,000 degrees Celsius, a high temperature enough to turn sand into glass, and can withstand lightning bolt of lightning-charged negatively charged an electric current of 40 kA on average, however it is known that some of lightning can carry an electric current up to 120 kA, and the movement of electric charge of 5 coulombs and 500 megajoules, or enough energy produced to run a light bulb 100 watts for a period of less than just two months, it depends voltage along the bolt, where the electrical breakdown of air (the phenomenon of turning insulating material to electrically conductive) by 3 million volts per meter, which means the production of about one billion volts of lightning has a length of 300 meters (1,000 feet). [2 ]
How occurrence of lightning phenomenon
Produces electrical charging inside the withdrawal of thunderstorms as a result of the presence of small-sized water particles or because of the flow of ice up crystals and down in the air and colliding with each other depending on the air humidity, as this leads to the transmission of negative electrons charge from the crystallization of ice to the other and the separation of negative charges on the positive so that it becomes the upper part of the cloud charged positively charged, while the charged cloud base becomes negatively charged.  
With the increasing electric field strength in the area of the presence of storm cloud thunderstorm starts electrical breakdown of air, it begins a column of laden air cargo, known as Commander progressive (in English: Stepped leader) to spread to the ground consecutive steps up the length of one of them to approximately 50 meters, and with the continuation of the movement and growth commander of the progressive ionized air and carries an electrical charge along the path, and with the proximity of the Earth is formed an electrical potential between the end of the progressive leader and ground teams, leading to the launch of the ground electric shipments hinder the course of the progressive leader before the arrival of the land. 
At the confluence of the progressive leader with electrical charges emanating from the ground strike feedback or feedback occur (in English: return stroke) toward the cloud speeds comparable almost to the speed of light, which generates tremendous energy, bright and light known as thunderstorms and lightning, it is worth mentioning that the electric field is high very high in the long objects such as radio antennas so when it reaches the progressive leader, it spreads them to the cloud component flash moves from the Earth branched to the cloud, and is characterized by this kind of flashing lightning that transmits to earth positive electric charge. 
It is similar to what happens previously mentioned in the lightning case inside the cloud, but the electrical discharge occurs between different cloud areas in electrical charge, and there is no strike feedback because of the lack of long-air capacity of the ground on electricity transmission, however, result in this kind of lightning tremendous energy and flashing incandescent, and thunder, like lightning from the cloud of the Earth. 
Types of lightning phenomenon
There are types of lightning, including major sub-types and other, as there are types and descriptions of lightning returns to individual views, or even visual illusions, myths or, in general, the most common type of lightning as follows: 
- From the cloud / clouds to earth: The type of cloud to the ground (in English: Cloud-to-ground lightning) of the most common types of lightning dangerous and harmful, and the most studied and note also, often arises from the transfer of negative charge from the cloud base center off the ground, but it may arise in a very few cases of transmission of positive shipments from the cloud base to a special stage in the dispersion of the ground or dissipated thunderstorm, do not accumulate as negative Bagheimh shipments, however, the flicker of positive charges is the most common during the winter months of summer.
- Inside the cloud or clouds: lightning produced inside the cloud or the cloud (in English: Intra-cloud lightning) as a result of electrostatic discharge charged between different centers within the cloud itself shipments, and in some cases can be seen flashing lightning outside the boundaries of the cloud of several miles.
- Between clouds or clouds: It's like lightning between clouds (English: Intra-Cloud Lightning) Lightning formed inside the clouds, but the only difference is that it occurs between the clouds separate, so that the impact or the effect of unloading operations between Agheimtin, rather than its impact on shipments within the clouds.
The proportion of lightning vary from cloud to earth, lightning inside the cloud of thunder to another storm, and believed that the storms that are formed only vertically produces lightning inside the cloud, and there are many factors that lead to the type of lightning without the other of the most important location for the departments supply, high Cloud summit. 
Predict lightning phenomenon
Is difficult to predict the location and timing of lightning confirmed and reliably by one hundred percent, despite the urgent need for this type of special advance warning when planning to establish external such as government exhibitions or golf tournaments events, it is currently available only is the ability to estimate the probability of occurrence of lightning from the cloud of the Earth using field measuring the electrical equipment accumulated in the air, which can be identified in which the strength of the electrical charge accumulated, and therefore know that lightning is about to reach somewhere in a rough manner. 
Site of a flash can be selected from a cloud of the Earth after it occurs already using a device to detect lightning (in English: lightning direction finder), a tool or a magnetic device specialist works through electromagnetic waves, including radio waves produced by lightning discovery, which is characterized as radiation long wave can travel or access long distances on the surface of the Earth along. 
The risk of lightning phenomenon
Lightning causes the occurrence of deaths or at least can lead to human injury seriously injured if you suffered a blow lightning, or if it happened to his presence near the body suffered a blow lightning, regardless of their whereabouts, outside the house or inside it because lightning can go through wires and pipes, support the impact of lightning on the lightning strike on the human type that are exposed, and these types are: 
- Direct strike: direct strike (spoke in English: Direct Strike) when a person is exposed to blow Alberqepeshkl directly, and in this case, the possibility of survival is very low, because the lightning bolt carrying an electric current of intensity of 30,000 amps and 100 million volts, and produces temperatures of up to 27.760 degrees Celsius (50,000 degrees Fahrenheit).
- Effort to seek: produce injury from seeking effort or contact the effort (in English: Contact Voltage) due to direct contact with the body lightning strike, such as roofs, or roofs of vehicles, towers, columns, wires and water pipes.
- Flash side: known as flash (in English: Side Flash), a bolt that hit an object, but they bounce him to infect the people close to him.
- Step effort, known step effort (in English: Step Voltage) or ground lightning (in English: Ground Streamers) that the transmission voltage of the ground exposed to lightning bolt or from any electrical path such as pavement wet, or pools of water, to people who are 100 feet (approximately 30.5 meters), and examples of it what happens when lightning hits a long tree will move the power supply to the surface of the ground and moves to a distance, and this type is the most caused the occurrence of injuries to humans, where the power enters the body at the closest point to blow the Thunderbolt such as the feet, and comes out of the body from another point far away, and the greater the distance between these two points, the greater the likelihood of injury or death, so it is often fatal ground current for cattle because of their large size. 
Safety procedures when a lightning phenomenon
Must take into account many things to avoid accidents that occur as a result of lightning, and some of them as follows: 
- Follow-up to local weather forecasts to learn about the weather, monitor signs that the probability of occurrence of such lightning, clouds are high in the form of broccoli, dark or dark sky.
- Seek shelter from thunder and lightning fast when you hear the sound of thunder, even if it was far away because lightning bolt can hit just about 16 km away from the place of rainfall, and in the event of the passage of 30 seconds or less between seeing lightning and hearing the sound of thunder, it means that the lightning bolt approximately 10 km away and it must seek shelter from lightning, preferably choose a large closed building and avoid small porches or small and micro, such as pavilions and tents, shelters, but if lightning hit the lightning while in a car with a solid surface can stay in after making sure that the windows are closed.
- Stay away from bodies of water when you see the signs of lightning, so must the person if it swims, or if it was inside the boat to go directly to the beach and seek shelter, but if sufficient time is not available to get to the beach should be the person to crouch in the middle of the boat completely and wait until the end lightning bolt.
- Stay away from places that can lightning flows through to the inside of the house, such as open windows, and a few meters away from sinks, toilets, bath tubs, boxes and electrical outlets.
- Avoid bathing during lightning and thunderstorms.
- Avoid using landline phone only when absolutely necessary; Because electrical charges may be transmitted to the phone if the lightning hit the phone lines abroad, while wireless and cellular phones are safe to use because they do not relate directly to the building cables.
- Electricity separated from electrical and electronic appliances, including air connections.
- Act quickly when feeling near the lightning occurs during the presence outside of the home and the lack of shelter nearby and the trend towards low-lying area away from trees, or metal objects, pipes, long objects, included the feet, bend the legs, and put your hands on knees, head down, avoid lying down on the ground or put your hands or knees on the ground, and in the case of lightning while in the forest must search for short trees and Alqrvsh away from the trunks of trees.
- ↑ "Lightning", www.britannica.com, Retrieved 15-1-2020. Edited.
- ↑ "Lightning", www.newworldencyclopedia.org,6-7-2008، Retrieved 15-1-2020. Edited.
- ↑ "Thunder and Lightning", scied.ucar.edu, Retrieved 15-1-2020. Edited.
- ^ أ ب ت "Lightning", www.public.asu.edu, Retrieved 27-1-2020. Edited.
- ^ أ ب ت "Lightning Primer", ghrc.nsstc.nasa.gov, Retrieved 16-1-2020. Edited.
- ^ أ ب "Lightning and Thunder", www.atmo.arizona.edu, Retrieved 16-1-200. Edited.
- ↑ "Lightning", emergency.fsu.edu, Retrieved 16-1-2020. Edited.
- ↑ "About Lightning", mrcc.illinois.edu, Retrieved 16-1-2020. Edited.
- ↑ "During a Lightning Storm", emergency.vt.edu, Retrieved 16-1-2020. Edited.
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